The ATtiny13 microcontroller from that LED light bulb is now waiting for new firmware. I used High Voltage Serial Programming to erase the chip, which clears the lock bits. I then reset the high fuse back to 0xFF. It was 0xFA before which disables the reset pin (and enables brownout detection) making In System Programming impossible.
I finished mapping out the PCB and it does use the example circuit from the buck converter's datasheet. Looks like it was outputting 12V and using a 7V zener diode to step down to the 5V source the tiny13 needed. I'm going to depopulate the PSU and patch in a 12V feed for further testing. I'm thinking my first project will be a red/green flasher for a Christmas porch light.