Programming AVR on Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex

AVR microcontroller

I have been using kubuntu as my OS for quite some time. This week I upgraded to 8.10 Intrepid Ibex and it is awful (the kubuntu version). I had major issues with using remote desktop and I don’t like the “usability” of the new version of KDE. To make a long story short, I’ve switching back to ubuntu (which uses the gnome desktop) by way for a fresh install and need to set things up to program AVR again. Let’s see if I can remember how I did it before.

I will use:

  • AVRdude
  • AVR-GCC toolchain
  • avr-libc (c libraries for avr programming
  • AVR Dragon as my programmer (usb)

To install the packages we need:

sudo apt-get install avr-dude gcc-avr avr-libc

When I tried to test out communications through AVRdude I get an error:

error sending control message: Operation not permitted

this means that I don’t have access to this usb device without using sudo. I’d rather not have to use a sudo command when working with these so let’s see if we can fix this problem.

Add udev rules that allow access to the AVR dragon via usb:

sudo nano /etc/udev/rules.d/50-avrdragon.rules

Paste this into the file (2 lines ONLY, both start with SUBSYSTEM):

SUBSYSTEM=="usb", SYSFS{idVendor}=="03eb", SYSFS{idProduct}=="2107", GROUP="users", MODE="0666"
SUBSYSTEM=="usb_device", MODE="0666" 

CTRL-X to exit and Y to save
Restart udev:

sudo /etc/init.d/udev restart

I am now able to talk to an ATtiny13 using this command:

avrdude -P usb -p t13 -c dragon_isp -v

Great, but one last thing, I want avrdude to default to using the Dragon in ISP mode via the USB. I will set this in the user configuration file that is called .avrduderc:

nano ~/.avrduderc

Paste these two lines into the file:

default_parallel = "usb";
default_programmer = "dragon_isp";

CTRL-X to exit and Y to save

Now I can read the chip information just by specifying what AVR is connected to the ISP:

avrdude -p t13 -v

Finally, here’s a makefile that I use (copy and paste into a file called “makefile”). Edit the file for the type of chip you are programming. You can change the project it is set to compile, right now you’ll see it is set to compile main.c.

# WinAVR Sample makefile written by Eric B. Weddington, J�rg Wunsch, et al.
# Modified (bringing often-changed options to the top) by Elliot Williams

# make all = Make software and program
# make clean = Clean out built project files.
# make coff = Convert ELF to AVR COFF (for use with AVR Studio 3.x or VMLAB).
# make extcoff = Convert ELF to AVR Extended COFF (for use with AVR Studio
#                4.07 or greater).
# make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.  Please
#                customize the avrdude settings below first!
# make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler code only
# To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".

# Microcontroller Type
MCU = attiny13
# MCU = attiny2313
# MCU = atmega8

# Target file name (without extension).
TARGET = main

# Programming hardware: type avrdude -c ?
# to get a full listing.
#AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = dragon_isp        # official name of 
#AVRDUDE_PORT = /dev/parport0           # linux
#AVRDUDE_PORT = lpt1		        # windows
#AVRDUDE_PORT = usb			# usb port

############# Don't need to change below here for most purposes  (Elliot)

# Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s]. 0 turns off optimization.
# (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
OPT = s

# Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
FORMAT = ihex

# List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)

# If there is more than one source file, append them above, or modify and
# uncomment the following:
#SRC += foo.c bar.c

# You can also wrap lines by appending a backslash to the end of the line:
#SRC += baz.c 

# List Assembler source files here.
# Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a lowercase .s
# will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
# output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
# Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
# it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and gcc itself does
# care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.

# List any extra directories to look for include files here.
#     Each directory must be seperated by a space.

# Optional compiler flags.
#  -g:        generate debugging information (for GDB, or for COFF conversion)
#  -O*:       optimization level
#  -f...:     tuning, see gcc manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:  warning level
#  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -ahlms:  create assembler listing
CFLAGS = -g -O$(OPT) 
-funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums 
-Wall -Wstrict-prototypes 
$(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))

# Set a "language standard" compiler flag.
#   Unremark just one line below to set the language standard to use.
#   gnu99 = C99 + GNU extensions. See GCC manual for more information.
#CFLAGS += -std=c89
#CFLAGS += -std=gnu89
#CFLAGS += -std=c99
CFLAGS += -std=gnu99

# Optional assembler flags.
#  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#  -ahlms:    create listing
#  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note that
#             for use in COFF files, additional information about filenames
#             and function names needs to be present in the assembler source
#             files -- see avr-libc docs &#91;FIXME: not yet described there&#93;
ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs 

# Optional linker flags.
#  -Wl,...:   tell GCC to pass this to linker.
#  -Map:      create map file
#  --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref

# Additional libraries

# Minimalistic printf version
#LDFLAGS += -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min

# Floating point printf version (requires -lm below)
#LDFLAGS += -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt

# -lm = math library
LDFLAGS += -lm

# Programming support using avrdude. Settings and variables.



# Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
# Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
# see avrdude manual.

# Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
# performed after programming the device.

# Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
# reports about avrdude. See <> 
# to submit bug reports.

#Run while cable attached or don't
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += -E reset #keep chip disabled while cable attached
#AVRDUDE_FLAGS += -E noreset

#AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U lfuse:w:0x04:m #run with 8 Mhz clock

#AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U lfuse:w:0x21:m #run with 1 Mhz clock #default clock mode

#AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U lfuse:w:0x01:m #run with 1 Mhz clock no start up time

# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Define directories, if needed.
DIRAVR = c:/winavr
DIRLIB = $(DIRAVR)/avr/lib

# Define programs and commands.
SHELL = sh

CC = avr-gcc

OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
SIZE = avr-size

# Programming support using avrdude.
AVRDUDE = avrdude

REMOVE = rm -f
COPY = cp

HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex

# Define Messages
# English
MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
MSG_END = --------  end  --------
MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before: 
MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
MSG_LINKING = Linking:
MSG_COMPILING = Compiling:
MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:

# Define all object files.
OBJ = $(SRC:.c=.o) $(ASRC:.S=.o) 

# Define all listing files.
LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst)

# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS)
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)

# Default target: make program!
all: begin gccversion sizebefore $(TARGET).elf $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep 
	$(TARGET).lss $(TARGET).sym sizeafter finished end

# Eye candy.
# AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
# the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.
	@echo $(MSG_BEGIN)


	@echo $(MSG_END)

# Display size of file.
	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi

	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi

# Display compiler version information.
gccversion : 
	@$(CC) --version

# Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in
# AVR Studio or VMLAB.
	--change-section-address .data-0x800000 
	--change-section-address .bss-0x800000 
	--change-section-address .noinit-0x800000 
	--change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000 

coff: $(TARGET).elf
	@echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof

extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof

# Program the device.  
program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep

# Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
%.hex: %.elf
	@echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
	$(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@

%.eep: %.elf
	@echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
	-$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" 
	--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@

# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
%.lss: %.elf
	$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@

# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
%.sym: %.elf
	@echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
	avr-nm -n $< > $@

# Link: create ELF output file from object files.
%.elf: $(OBJ)
	@echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
	$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(OBJ) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)

# Compile: create object files from C source files.
%.o : %.c
	@echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
%.s : %.c
	$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
%.o : %.S
	@echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
	$(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Target: clean project.
clean: begin clean_list finished end

clean_list :
	@echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).a90
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lnk
	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
	$(REMOVE) *~

# Automatically generate C source code dependencies. 
# (Code originally taken from the GNU make user manual and modified 
# (See README.txt Credits).)
# Note that this will work with sh (bash) and sed that is shipped with WinAVR
# (see the SHELL variable defined above).
# This may not work with other shells or other seds.
%.d: %.c
	set -e; $(CC) -MM $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< 
	| sed 's,(.*).o&#91; :&#93;*,1.o 1.d : ,g' > $@; 
	[ -s $@ ] || rm -f $@

# Remove the '-' if you want to see the dependency files generated.
-include $(SRC:.c=.d)

# Listing of phony targets.
.PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion coff extcoff 
	clean clean_list program